As far back as 2014, we've seen doctors perform surgeries using 3D printed vertebrae, and a 3D printed model for pre-planning, in places all over the world, like Australia, India, and China. A 28-year-old patient going by the pseudonym of Xiao Wen recently had a risky surgery at Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, the largest spinal tumor treatment center in the country, after she was diagnosed with a rare type of cancer called chondrosarcoma this spring. Doctors discovered a large malignant tumor on her neck, infringing on six of the seven bones in her cervical vertebra, and decided her best chance for survival was to remove the tumor and all six of the bones affected by the tumor, and replace them with custom 3D printed bones, made of titanium alloy. Read more at